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bench trial

A bench trial is a legal proceeding in which a case is tried before a judge rather than a jury and the judge decides both questions of law and questions of fact.

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Bench trials are often less time-consuming and expensive than jury trials and provide litigants with the procedural and evidentiary protections that may not be available in an arbitration. Furthermore, the fears of excessive jury awards are typically minimized when a dispute is submitted to a judge as opposed to a jury.