One of the most common residential claims is from water. Damages from water
can be as small as from a minor roof leak to a complete flooding of the unit—with
all ranges in-between. No matter the extent of damages, the cause and source
of the water is of utmost importance. In many cases, the source of the water
determines if there is coverage for the damages. This means that when adjusting
any water damage claim, the source of water has to be determined.
A very common water damage claim is damage to a ceiling. Many of these claims
are very obvious. There is clearly damage to the roof, and water has leaked
through the damaged areas. There will be other claims where there is no evidence
of damage to the roof. In this case, the source of the leak could be at exposed
nails, flashing, or valleys. If no covered peril caused the opening that allowed
the water to enter, there may or may not be coverage for the interior damages.
Another common source of damage is water from a plumbing, heating, air-conditioning
system, or household appliance. These include burst or leaking water heaters,
burst or leaking pipes, and leaking or broken ice maker lines. This can also
include backup or overflow of tubs, toilets, or sinks, clogged air-conditioning
condensation lines, and broken lines to a washing machine. Leaking drains and
shower pans are also common sources of water. If there is policy coverage, it
usually covers the damages caused by the water but does not pay to repair the
damaged or broken water line or appliance. If a broken or leaking water line
is inside a wall or ceiling or under a slab foundation, there may be coverage
to access the water line but again no coverage to repair the water line itself.
The same is true for a leaking shower pan.
A third, and probably most devastating, type of water claim is from flooding.
Flooding is also probably the most misunderstood of the types of water claims.
The reason for the misunderstanding is that flood is not normally covered by
most insurance policies. To have flood coverage, it is usually necessary to
have special flood coverage. To purchase flood coverage also might require living
in a designated flood plain.
A good rule of thumb in trying to determine if there is coverage for water
damage is, “If the water comes down, it might be covered. If it comes up, it
is usually not covered.” The exception to this is the backup of sewers or drains.
On some policies, drain backup is covered.
Once a coverage determination has been made, it is now necessary to determine
the cost of repairs. The quicker water damages can be addressed, the more the
costs can be mitigated. Before any repairs can be made, it is necessary to correct
the problem. A leaking roof has to be repaired, a broken water line replaced,
and flood waters need to recede.
There will be claims where repairs have been started before the adjuster
receives the loss notice. These usually involve a large amount of water. They
might entail a burst water heater or a broken water line. In these cases, a
restoration company may have begun water extraction and dehumidification. One
of the main problems with the continued presence of moisture is mold and mildew.
It is not uncommon for the adjuster to arrive at the loss location and find
the carpet has been pulled and the baseboards pulled. Fans and dehumidifiers
are brought in by the restoration company. The quicker the drying process begins,
the less likely there will be a problem with mold and mildew. Should mold or
mildew be present, the restoration cost and cost to settle the claim can rise
Once the moisture has been removed and the property dried, final determination
of damages can be made. Damages might be as minor as sealing and painting a
water stain to as serious as replacing much of the structure and contents. The
main thing to remember when adjusting water claims is that time is the enemy.
The longer it takes the adjuster to get to the claim and the longer the moisture
is present, the more chance of increased or additional damages.
One of the assets of water claims is the restoration contractor. Often they
are the first to respond to the problem. Sometimes they are called by the agent
when the claim is first reported. In many instances, the restoration company
is there to perform the emergency repairs. This might include anything from
installing fans and dehumidifiers to pulling the carpet. Sometimes if the water
is confined to a small area, the carpet can be dried at the location. On more
serious situations, the carpet may need to be taken in to the company facility
It is also very important to get furniture up and off of wet carpet. In many
cases the restoration company will put blocks under the legs of the furniture
to get it up and away from the water. Furniture will often have a metal tap
at the bottom of the legs. When this tap gets wet, it can rust and leave a stain
on the carpet. By blocking the furniture, this stain can be prevented. Blocking
also prevents the wooden legs of the furniture from absorbing the moisture and
One of the biggest problems with wet carpet is the odor. This is normally
the result of moisture in the pad. For this reason, the restoration company
will probably remove the pad prior to drying the carpet. This eliminates the
odor problem. The wet pad can then be replaced with a new pad. Since restoration
companies are usually in the business to save carpet rather than sell new carpet,
they are a valuable asset to insurance companies.
As mentioned above, a major concern in today's insurance climate is the problem
of mold and mildew. When most restoration companies deal with water claims,
every effort is made to prevent any problem with mold and mildew. Often a mold
and mildew inhibitor is applied.